Artificial intelligence technology is attracting attention these days, so let’s start with an overview of artificial intelligence. In addition, we will explain the difference between robots and the artificial intelligence that surrounds us.
What Is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial intelligence is not even established among experts, but the technology that reproduces human intelligence by computer is generally called artificial intelligence (AI).
Artificial intelligence with emotions similar to humans has not been completed with current technology. However, artificial intelligence systems with a higher level of intelligence than humans appear in specific fields, such as “AlphaGo” and “Watson” developed by IBM.
The Difference Between Robots And Artificial Intelligence
Robots are designed to perform pre-programmed movements accurately. You can’t proceed with self-judgement beyond what has been decided. On the other hand, artificial intelligence is a machine that learns, thinks, and solves problems like the human brain.
Artificial Intelligence Around You
Artificial intelligence such as cleaning robots, AI speakers, Internet search engines, and uncrewed self-driving cars are active. In addition to humanoid robots such as “Pepper” developed by Softbank, demonstration experiments of serving robots are also underway in the restaurant industry.
History And Evolution Of Artificial Intelligence Technology
Artificial intelligence is said to have its roots in the book “Computing Machines and Humans” published in 1950 by British mathematician Alan Turing. At the Dartmouth Conference in 1956, the term “artificial intelligence” was first used to describe machines that think like humans. AI became known among scientists after this conference.
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1st Artificial Intelligence Boom “Exploration And Inference”
The first AI boom came in the 1960s. What was researched in the first AI boom was inference and search using computers. The world was fascinated by the sight of computers solving specific problems.
However, the first AI boom gradually faded when it became clear that the rules were unclear and those complex problems could not be solved. The problem that artificial intelligence solved now is called the “toy problem”.
2nd Artificial Intelligence Boom “Knowledge Expression”
The AI boom regained momentum in the 1980s. The “expert system” triggered the second AI boom. An expert system is a system that acts as an expert’s judgement and is a program that inputs data based on rules and responds with conditioned reflexes.
The expert system seemed to be doing well, with examples of its introduction in business appearing, but there were two problems. One is that we have to describe the vast amount of knowledge humans have at the level of “general common sense.” The second problem was the inability to accommodate exception handling and inconsistent rules.
3rd Artificial Intelligence Boom “Machine Learning”
From 2006 to the present, we are in the midst of the third boom. Behind the third boom are the emergence of machine learning and deep learning and the spread of big data. In the past, the mainstream method was for humans to define rules and for AI to solve problems and extract knowledge. The third boom is attracting attention as AI learns and makes guesses on its own.